Rice phyllosphere microbiome: Differences in microbial communities between wild and cultivated rice

A group from State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, etc., has reported about differences in microbial communities between wild and cultivated Rice.

The core rice phyllosphere bacteria contained 27 Proteobacteria that made up 62.8% of relative abundance, and Pantoea was the most abundant genus (42.7%), followed by Methylobacterium (4.8%), Pseudomonas (3.6%), Acinetobacter (2.9%), and Serratia (2.1%). Except for Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota (11.7%), Firmicutes (8.5%), and Bacteroidota (0.5%) were the abundant phyla of the core phyllosphere bacteria. As for fungi, 29 core fungal ASVs were mainly classified in the genera of Nigrospora (13.2%), Pyrenophora (13.1%), Papiliotrema (12.5%), and Phaeosphaeria (4.5%). Although the core taxa were present in all the samples, the relative abundance of these ASVs varied significantly across rice species and sampling sites.

For bacteria, Xanthomonas, Klebsiella and Sphingomonas were mostly enriched in the wild rice. Meanwhile, there were some core bacteria significantly enriched in the wild rice, such as Methylobacterium, Xanthomonas, Hymenobacter, and Klebsiella. Compared to the cultivated rice, Methylobacterium was the most enriched genus in wild rice. For fungi, Khuskia, Acidomyces, and Pyrenophora were mostly enriched in the wild rice, while none of core fungal taxa were enriched in the wild rice. Compared to the wild rice, Pseudomonas and Comamonas were the main enriched bacterial genera in the cultivated rice, and Chaetomium, and Rhodotorula were the main enriched fungal genera in the cultivated rice, respectively.

From a view point of functional profiles of the rice phyllosphere microbiome, significantly higher functional potentials of methanol oxidation (+594%), methylotrophy (+460%), ureolysis (+430%), and photoheterotrophy (+345%) were expected in wild rice than in cultivated rice (P < 0.05) (Fig. S5C). In addition, cultivated rice had significantly higher potentials of plant pathogens (+91%), human-associated (+88%) and human pathogens (+88%).