A group from Laboratory of Oncolytic Virus Immuno-Therapeutics, German Cancer Research Centre, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, etc. has reported about the importance of Galectin-1 in the process of H-1 Parvovirus infection.
Oncolytic viruses selectively infect and destroy cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. They can also stimulate strong anti-tumour immune responses and destroy tumour vasculature. No fewer than 40 oncolytic viruses are currently under evaluation in clinical trials as treatments against a variety of cancers. Among them is H-1 rat protoparvovirus (H-1PV), a member of the Parvoviridae family in the genus Protoparvovirus.
It was found that H-1PV enters cancer cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a process that involves dynamin and requires a low pH in the endocytic compartments. It was also found that laminins, in particular those containing the laminin γ1 chain, act as attachment factors at the cell surface for a successful H-1PV infection. In particular, sialic acid moieties in the laminins provide a docking place for the virus to anchor to at the cell surface, and Gal-1 promotes the efficient internalisation of virus particles into a clathrin-coated pit. After engagement of these factors, H-1PV penetrates the cells preferentially via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.