Development of novel antibiotics from Actinomycetia isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Juniperus excelsa

A group from Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine, etc. has reported about development of novel antibiotics from Actinomycetia isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Juniperus excelsa. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10031196/ Natural products play a key role in drug discovery, especially in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, the rapid spread of bacterial infections has been observed in recent decades, mainly due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. As a consequence, there is now a general consensus that the discovery of new antibiotics is needed as the best solution in the fight against antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. In this work, the 372 actinomycete-like strains were isolated in 2008 from rhizosphere soil of J. excelsa collected from mountainous region on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. First of all, those strains were screened by means of the spot inoculation method to evaluate antimicrobial activity, and the secondary metabolite extracts from selected strains were analyzed by LC–MS and dereplication analysis. As a result, it was found that the Streptomyces sp. Je 1–651 strain exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all of the utilised microbial test cultures, except for P. aeruginosa. In the crude extracts of the Je 1–651 strain grown on DNPM medium, there were seven peaks (indicated by Red stars below) not identified in the existing database in addition to those of spiramycins and stambomycins. This may indicate the potential novelty of antibiotic compounds, and the future research is expected.

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The beneficial effect of Bacillus to suppress phytopathogen is due to double-sided nature of its secondary metabolites

A group from Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumtani, Thailand, etc. has reported that the beneficial effect of Bacillus to suppress phytopathogen is due to double-sided nature of its secondary metabolites. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9986491/ It has been known that Bacillus exhibit potent antagonistic activity against phytopathogens through the secondary metabolites, i.e., lipopeptide biosurfactants such as iturin A and surfactin. However, such antagonistic activity of Bacillus is not only due to the direct effect of biosurfactants but also due to boosting plant immunity by the biosurfactants. Salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) are important hormonal signal molecules involved in biotic stress responses during plant–pathogen interactions. In this work, it was shown that biosurfactant treatments elevated both salicylic acid and total phenolic content, with a faster rate, whereas total phenolic content in the control treatment (i.e., 0%) was only slightly increased. efficacy of the Bacillus biosurfactant as the sole regulator at concentrations of 20%, 25%, and 30% v/v.

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Cyanobacteria lectin, CV-N, binds selectively to SARS-CoV-2 spike and blocks infection by SARS-CoV-2

A group from Molecular Targets Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, NIH, Frederick, MD, USA, etc. has reported that Cyanovirin-N binds selectively to SARS-CoV-2 spike oligosaccharides outside of the receptor binding domain (RBD) and blocks infection by SARS-CoV-2. https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.2214561120 Cyanovirin-N, CV-N, showed inhibitory activity against all tested variants of SARS-CoV-2 (WH-1, D614G, B1.1.7 (Alpha), P.1 (Gamma), B1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B1.1.529 (Omicron)) with EC50 values ranging from 40 nM for Omicron to 180 nM for Alpha. CV-N bound with good affinity to Spike protein and did not bind to the RBD. In detail, CV-N could bind oligo-mannose at N61, N122, and N234 sites of the S1 domain of Spike protein. Since the glycan at position N234 played important roles in both shielding the RBD and in stabilizing the RBD in the “up” conformation, the specific binding of CV-N to the S1 domain of Spike at 234 might sterically block the RBD binding to ACE2.

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Lung cancer detection from saliva by using a by immobilized lectin-affinity fluorescent labeling method

A group from Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China etc. has reported about lung cancer detection from saliva by using a by immobilized lectin-affinity fluorescent labeling method. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9969232/ Quantification of protein glycosylation in human biofluids such as saliva and urine would be an easiest way to identify underlying pathophysiological changes. In this study, lectins (AAL, UEA-I, and LCA) were used for quantitative analysis of salivary protein fucosylation. Lectins were first covalently bound to amine-reactive beads, while proteins extracted from saliva were labeled with fluorescein tags. The lectins and fluorescently labeled proteins are incubated, and the fucosylated glycoproteins are bound to the lectin beads. The lectin bound glycoproteins were placed in a 96-well plate, and the fluorescence intensity was measure by a plate reader. As a result, it was found that the fucosylation of salivary glycoproteins significantly upregulated in lung cancer than in healthy controls and other diseases, and lung cancer salivary fucosylation was proportional to the tumor malignancy reflecting the stage of lung cancer.

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Changes in IgG glycosylation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome is detected by LCA lectin

A group from Key Laboratory of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China, etc. has reported about changes in IgG glycosylation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9961092/ Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (PSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease resulting in significant loss of systemic gland secretory function. Total of 128 serum samples were used for lectin microarray analysis, obtained from 40 PSS patients), 50 primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients, and 38 healthy controls who were healthy volunteers. As a result, it was found that changes in serum IgG glycosylation in PSS increased binding levels of LCA lectin compared to healthy controls and PBC patients.

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5 kinds of diagnostic O-glycoprotein biomarkers for advanced colorectal cancer

A group from Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan, etc. has reported about diagnostic biomarkers for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9948623/ O-glycoproteins in serum samples collected from CRC patients were enriched by using lectin affinity purification using MPL, Jacalin, and SNL, as biomarker candidates, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS in detail. It was found that the followings can have high diagnostic efficacy to strategically predict advanced CRC groups. fibulin-2 (FBLN2) /T antigen macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1)/(T + di-Sialyl T) macrophage mannose receptor 1 (MRC1) /T fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA)/Sialyl T complement component C7 (C7) /di-Sialyl T

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Glycan binding specificity of WFA is quite similar to that of VVA

A group from Department of Chemistry and Center for Diagnostics & Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA, etc. has reported about chemoenzymatically synthesized O-glycan arrays. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9931048/ WFA is know to be a quite useful lectin in diagnosis. According to this study, WFA and VVA strongly bind all structures with a terminal unmodified GalNAc residue, including Tn-antigen, core 5, sialyl-core 5, and core 7, as shown below. No.24 is Tn-antigen

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Effects of application of microbial organic fertilizers after dazomet fumigation

A group from Pest Integrated Management Key Laboratory of China Tobacco, Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao, China, etc. has reported about effects of application of microbial organic fertilizers after dazomet fumigation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9891460/ Crop succession leads to continuous accumulation of pathogens in soil; for example, eggplant crop succession leads to severe occurrence of bacterial wilt and blight, watermelon crop succession leads to severe occurrence of wilt, and ginger crop succession can lead to severe ginger plague. This not only breaks the soil nutrient balance but also deteriorates the soil biological traits, which eventually results in the collapse of the soil microcosm and causes serious harm to crop yield and environmental safety. The using of biocontrol agent or organic fertilizer after fumigation can eliminate the negative effects of fumigants by promoting soil microcosm recovery and improving soil texture, which has become a hot research topic in this field. This study reported about the effects of Junweinong and Junlisu microbial organic fertilizers (MOFs) applied after dazomet fumigation. these two MOFs after dazomet fumigation significantly reduced the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter content, which means that plants could absorb these nutrients. Fumigation and post-fumigation application of organic fertilizer can increase soil pH. Soil pH is a key factor affecting soil health, and black shank and black root rot of tobacco have high incidence at pH 4.8–5.8. Rhizoctonia and sclerotinia diseases of cruciferous plants are prone to occur in acidic soils and hardly occur at pH 7.2–7.4 after changing soil acidity The addition of both MOFs after fumigation increased the abundance of rhizosphere bacteria without significant effect on microbial diversity. However, it changed the composition of rhizosphere microorganisms, as bacteria such as Gaiella, norank_f_Vicinamibacteraceae, and Flavisolibacter and fungi such as Peroneutypa, Olpidium, and Microascus were significantly enriched. These microorganisms have important roles in enhancing crop system resistance and promoting nutrient uptake. In addition, the addition of MOF after dazomet fumigation increased the relative abundance of functional genes for 13 kinds of amino acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway in the rhizosphere soil.

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The type of consortia of beneficial rhizospheric bacteria changes with soil nutritional status and agro-climatic datasets

A group from Soil and Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering College, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (NIBGE-C, PIEAS), Punjab, Pakistan, etc. has reported that the type of consortia of beneficial rhizospheric bacteria changes with soil nutritional status and agro-climatic datasets https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9878846/ Despite the great significance of biostimulants in sustainable agriculture, there is still a lack of integrated technology encompassing the successful competitiveness of inoculated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in agricultural systems in the context of climatic conditions/meteorological factors and soil nutritional status. Bacterial strains used in this study are a subset of a large collection of PSB isolated from the rhizosphere soil of wheat grown in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. All of the strains used in the present study have multiple plant growth-promoting attributes, i.e., phosphate solubilization, zinc solubilization, indole acetic acid production, and organic acid production. Three different consortia were designed by selecting soil-/site-specific PSB for recommended wheat varieties to that particular site. Consortium-1, Enterobacter spp. ZW32, Ochrobactrum sp. SSR, and Enterobacter spp. ZW9. Consortium-2, Enterobacter spp. D1, Ochrobactrum sp. SSR, and Pantoea sp. S1 Consortium-3, Bacillus sp. TAYB, Ochrobactrum sp. SSR, and Pseudomonas sp. TJA Interestingly, soil-specific consortia improved various wheat growth parameters under respective soil conditions. For instance, the maximum grain yield (5,390 kg ha-1) was observed as a result of consortium-1 inoculation at site 2 followed by site 3 (5,240 kg ha-1) and site 1 (4,806 kg ha-1), and in the case of consortium-2, the maximum grain yield (5,324 kg ha-1) was observed as a result of consortium-2 inoculation at site 6 followed by site 5 (4,806 kg ha-1). The effect of consortium-3 was not so significant compared with consortium-1 and -2. However, the effect is clearly shown compared to the state with 20% less fertilizer. This study demonstrates for the first time the need to integrate soil biological health and agro-climatic conditions for consistent performance of augmented PSB and enhanced P nutrient uptake to reduce soil pollution caused by the extensive use of agrochemicals.

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Feasibility of brewer’s spent yeast (BSY) microcapsules as a targeted oral drug delivery system

A group from REQUIMTE-LAQV, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal, etc. has reported about feasibility of brewer’s spent yeast (BSY) microcapsules as a targeted oral drug delivery system. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9857821/ The BSY microcapsules were extracted by an alkaline extraction method with 1 M KOH or 4 M KOH or using a subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) method at 180℃ or 200℃. Resultant microcapsules were in vitro digested (IVD) with mimicking a gastrointestinal digestive condition. The non-digested material, despite some visible agglutination and deformation of the microcapsules, preserved their spherical shape and was enriched in (β1→3)-glucans. The soluble polysaccharides released during IVD from microcapsules obtained by SWE interact with Dectin-1, those released from the 1 M KOH microcapsules interact with DC-SIGN, and 4 M KOH and 180℃SWE microcapsules solubilized polysaccharides interact with Dectin-2. These results show the potential of BSY microcapsules to be used as an oral drug delivery system for biomedical applications.

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